1) Intangible Cultural Heritage
UNESCO has adopted its Convention on Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage in the 32nd General Conference held in Paris on October 17th, 2003. Intangible Cultural Heritage is defined by the UNESCO as practices, representations, expressions, information and skills that communities, groups and sometimes individuals define as a part of their cultural heritage and tools, equipment and cultural venues. With this convention, it is aimed to raise sensitivity at national and international level for protection of intangible cultural heritage, respect to intangible cultural heritage and protection of this heritage. Handed down from generation to generation, this heritage is recreated consistently depending on interaction of communities and groups with environment, nature and history and this gives them an identity and a sense of continuity; therefore, the respect to cultural diversity and human creativeness is consolidated.
Intangible Cultural Heritage especially includes the fields below.
- a) Verbal traditions and expressions with language which acts as a carrier role in transfer of intangible cultural heritage
- b) Performance arts
- c) Social practices, rituals and feasts
- d) Information and practices on nature and universe
- e) Tradition of handicrafts
2) Cultural Heritage and Children
As a comprehensive concept containing natural and cultural environment, cultural heritage is a distinguished expression of human creativeness and it is required to handed down to next generations without spoiling. As of the last quarter of the 20th century, it has been seen that value given by the society for its cultural heritage that it defines as its own heritage has started being at the center of decisions of preservation on that heritage. Say of the people in heritage protection is defined and encouraged as a sustainable approach for protection of cultural heritage. Likewise, cultural heritage is a resource that is in people’s favor and this resource is not dead or does not belong to the past; but is a part of the society where people live in.
As stressed by value-based approaches, societies are focused on preserving and watching what they esteem. Protected and favored places turn into environments that people are proud of and where they enjoy living there. The fact that societies esteem and preserve historical environments that they live in affects positively generation of societies that are able to recover themselves more quickly. It is obvious that training on cultural heritage and preservation to start at early ages is so important in raising awareness on tangible and intangible heritage to be preserved in the society. It is always emphasized that it is important for children and young people to establish a relationship with a special context like cultural heritage in terms of learning and understanding a certain subject by doing or gaining a certain skill.
3) Story-Telling and Children
Story-telling is a popular concept used in various fields today. However, the act of story-telling dates back to centuries ago. Our elders telling us tales, heroics and legends in our childhood actually performed story-telling. The reason why we still know the stories that were made up centuries ago is they have been handed down from generation to generation since then.
The tool of socialization and entertainment was language before technological tools like television, Internet, etc. had been invented. People had opened the door of different worlds with stories of story-tellers and both had had fun and learned by developing their imagination. Story-telling, which actually appears like it is beginning to fade away or its functionality has been eliminated, has emerged today and started gain currency. The reason is story-telling triggers dream world and this becomes a resource that companies are fed since it contributes to development of creativeness.
Story-telling teaches children how to speak meaningfully and aimfully. It enlarges vocabulary of children and enhances their language use and capability of learning a new language, thus their communicative skills. It develops their logical thinking, creativeness and imagination. Furthermore, children are more keen on reading and writing and telling new stories.
Ice breaking exercise
Name Emulation: Get group into a circle. Everyone says their name and similar word which start their first letter of name. For example, “My name is Lider like a lamp.” After they say that they give an action and all group repeat it.
Gathering by Number: Participants walk freely in the venue. The instructor says a number. For example, it says "5". Participants form groups of 5 and ask questions to get to know each other. The exercise of walking freely and gathering as many as the said number is repeated until all participants are equal to each other.
Knowing each other – What's my story?
My Story: Each participant gives a short talk about their own life. Before giving this speech, he determines an object, a symbol in his mind and tells his life story based on this theme.
welcome & energizer
Catch Tail: Long pieces of newsprint are given to each participant. They are asked to form a tail by attaching these papers to their waist. After all the participants have made their tails, the game begins. Everyone tries to grab each other's tail. While doing this, they try to protect their own tails. The one whose tail is caught is out of the game. The last person standing becomes the winner of the game.
The hero's journey
Based on Joseph Campbell's Story Circle, the appropriate titles for the age groups of the participants were determined as follows.
Call to Adventure and Rejection
Encounter with the Guide and Introduction to the Adventure
Obstacles, Allies, Enemies
Achieving the Purpose
Detailed information about each section is given to the participants and they are provided to write stories in the classroom environment.
warm up games
Participants stand in a circle. 3 balls are awarded to 3 different participants. Everyone throws the ball to someone else and it is ensured that 3 balls circulate in the circle at the same time. With this study, it is ensured that the attention of the participants is gathered. After this work is done with 3 balls, the balls are taken. The same game is played without the ball by making the balls “as if they exist”.
Creative writing: put in practice
Participants leave in groups. They are asked to identify a fable, movie or story they know. Then, they are asked to examine the "Story Circle" steps they learned in the previous lesson, through the fairy tale, movie or story they have determined.
The importance of the context: be creative!
Participants leave in groups. Half of a well-known fairy tale is given to each group. They are asked to create a new tale by changing the ending of the tales.
Creative historical writing exercise
Participants are divided into groups of 4. Each group is given a historical venue and “story cubes”. Based on the visuals on the story cubes, they are asked to write a short story about the historical place.
welcome & energizer
All participants become double wives. After examining each other thoroughly, the spouses turn their backs on each other. They make changes on themselves (hair, clothes, accessories) and return to each other again. They try to find the changes made.
5 sense of the storytelling
After talking to the participants about the 5 senses, the following studies are carried out on integrating the 5 senses into the written language.
Seeing: All participants are asked to look out the window and write down the scene they see outside. Then what is written is read. Although everyone looks at the same view and writes it down, the differences between the writings are talked about. The originality of the authors is mentioned.
Sniffing: Cinnamon, lemon, orange, essential oils are distributed to the participants and each participant is asked to choose a scent. The participant who smells is asked to describe what he smelled in writing.
Hearing: The nature sounds video is opened and the participants are asked to write down the sounds they hear.
Tasting: A slice of apple is distributed to each participant. They are told to chew the apple in their mouth for 10 minutes and never swallow it. For 10 minutes, they are asked to write down the feeling that the apple leaves in their mouth.
Touch: Each participant is given an object that they can touch. While constantly touching the object with one hand, they are asked to write down the feelings and thoughts of this touch with the other hand.
Creation of the story
Participants are divided into groups of 4. Each group is distributed from the story cubes. Based on the 9 steps in the story circle, they are asked to write a story for each step using the symbols on the story cubes.
Description techniques in the story (Funny Rhyme)
A known rhyme is distributed to all participants and an analysis work is done on the rhyme. In the introduction to the stories, the relevance of the rhymes to the subject, the contradictions of the rhymes, and interesting discourses that will attract the attention of the reader are discussed.
Next, the groups are asked to produce new nursery rhymes as the introduction to a familiar tale.
welcome & energizer
I Made a Cake: All participants form a circle. One participant said, “I made a cake. It has everything in it. There is not only one Tolga.” says. The participant whose name was mentioned said, “No, I'm in. No Alps.” says someone else's name. The game continues in this way.
Creation of the story
Participants are divided into groups of 4. Each group is given an object. Participants are asked to write a story in which their object will be the main character in accordance with the story circle technique. After the written stories are read, the characteristics of fable type stories are told.
welcome & energizer
I Planted Pumpkin in the Field: Participants form a circle. Each participant is given a number. One participant said, “I planted 5 pumpkins in the field.” After saying that, participant number 5 said, “There cannot be 5 zucchini. It would be 7 zucchini.” says. In this way, each participant says a different number, and the participant whose number is called says another number.
Creation of the story
Participants are divided into groups of 4. Each group is given pen and paper. The groups draw pictures on their papers on a free subject. After the drawing work is finished, the pictures are exchanged between the groups. Then, they are asked to write stories in accordance with the story circle technique based on the pictures. Discussion moment among the children
Discussion moment among the children
Participants are asked to write a story individually and are given sufficient time. After the story writing job is done, everyone replaces their story with someone else. All participants are asked to evaluate the stories they receive like a jury, to identify the parts they find beautiful and lacking, and to share them with the owners of the stories.